Java: Why you should always override hashCode when overriding equals

What could happen if I only override equals?

  • Suppose you only override equals but not hashCode
  • This means that hashCode is inherited from Object
  • Object.hashCode always tries to return different hash codes for different objects (regardless if they are equal or not)
  • This means that you may end up with different hash codes for two objects that you consider to be equal
  • This in turn causes these two equal objects to end up in different buckets in hash based collections such as HashSet
  • This causes such collections to break

Let’s illustrate with an example:

class IntBox {
    int i;
    IntBox(int i) { this.i = i; }

    // equals other IntBoxes that store the same int value.
    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        IntBox other = (IntBox) o;
        return this.i == other.i;

class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Set<IntBox> intBoxes = new HashSet<>();
        intBoxes.add(new IntBox(0));
        boolean found = intBoxes.contains(new IntBox(0));
        // found == false

What could happen if I only override hashCode?

This will not break the code as above, but may degrade performance.

  • Suppose you only override hashCode but not equals
  • This means that you may return the same hash code for two non-equal objects
    • Object.hashCode might do so too, but it does an as good job as possible to avoid it
  • This in turn means that two non-equal objects end up in the same bucket in a hash based collection such as HashSet
  • This degrades performance since objects are not distributed as evenly as possible among the buckets

Put differently: If you don’t override equals any two objects will be considered non-equal. Since Object.hashCode ensures that all objects are distributed as evenly as possible in a hash based collection Object.hashCode is optimal, and overriding it with anything else will worsen the performance.


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